Skip to content

Recent Articles



We are very proud to share a video about the Mining Mud & Medals project called

Directed and Edited by Joel Checkley and Produced by Belinda Ensor
for Museums Australia (Victoria), 2014

Photo: Hill 60 in Flanders


Corporal Martin George Dunn – member 2nd Australian Tunnelling Coy & POW

Martin George Dunn (543) a 43 year old married Railwayman who was living at Ballarat when he enlisted on the 16th July 1915.

He was taken prisoner in 1917 and returned to Australia in 1919.

More on Martin George Dunn:

Photo: Ballarat Ex-Prisoner of War Memorial, where Martin George Dunn is listed.


A digitised copy of M.G. Dunn’s POW Index Card (Red Cross archives, Switzerland) recently became available for viewing online. Access via

The Nominal Roll of British Prisoners of War who arrived in Switzerland from Germany on 31 August 1918 (Red Cross archives, Switzerland) shows Corporal M.G. Dunn was accompanied by Sgt C.H. Angus, 2nd Aust Tunnelling Company, along with others from the AIF and Scots or Canadian units.



Another ANZAC Tunneller from the Ballarat Electorate:

Captain Percy William Wagstaff, born in Daylesford, was a miner. In 1896 he was the Mine Manager for the ‘Last Chance Mine’ at Yandoit. He married music teacher Florence Wilkinson.

According to his records, he served with the 2nd Battalion, 8th Australian Infantry Regiment and the 67th Australian Infantry before WW1. Captain Percy William Wagstaff - Copy (300x415) (300x415)

He applied and became a member of the No 5 Tunnelling Company and later transferred to the 2nd Tunnelling Company.

Besides the British medals awarded after the war, he was awarded the Croix de Guerre (France) for conspicuous services. As a result of an explosion,

2 French deputies and some soldiers were buried. Wagstaff at his own personal risk, and under difficult circumstances, directed the rescue work day and night,

resulting in saving some soldiers as well as recovery of the Deputies.

Percy William Wagstaff returned to Australia and died in September 1941 at age 60.

For more information check



A ‘Ballarat Tunneller’.

Thomas Rhys Williams was not born in the Ballarat Electorate, but he did attend the Ballarat School of Mines, graduating as a Mining Engineer and a First Class Mining Manager in 1909.

He assumed command of the 2nd Field Company. In 1916, when the Third Australian Division was formed, Williams commanded the 9th Field Company of the Royal Engineers in France, leading the company through campaigns at Messines and Third Ypres. He became commander of the 3rd Division Engineers.

Thomas Rhys Williams was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO), Companion or the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (CMG) and the Croix de Guerre (Belgian).

He served in World War 1 and 2.



Every Aussie’s got a soft spot for Wombats!

Kiwi Tunnellers in France used Wombat drilling machines as part of their mining operations. In the Australian Tunnelling Corps, Captain Stanley Hunter was the drilling expert and the inventor of a drilling machine called the ‘Wombat’. The Corps took 36 of these with it and the NZ Tunnellers would also use the machine to their advantage. The Wombat would play an important part in the underground opening scenes of the Battle of Arras.

The Wombat was named after the Australian animal, said to be the fastest borer known. The Calyx cutter attachment of the drill was made of hard steel. In a 1919 NZ newspaper article on the use of the borer at Messines, the Wombat was reported to be ‘eminently suited to boring in the chalk and flints of the country and did wonderful work.’

It was reported that at Messines the value of the Wombat was in its great adaptability to conditions. It could be used for a straight-down bore, or for horizontal drilling, and was effective in all directions, except boring round corners — it would not do just as it was asked to when an angle had to be negotiated. The special value of the Wombat was in drilling horizontal holes into near-by enemy trenches — 100ft or more away.

The 6in hole was drilled from the Allied trench, the power being men on the handles of the driller. When the hole was far enough, the ammonal cartridges were inserted and pushed very carefully with the drill into the end of the bore, each cartridge being pushed up so that it fitted into the end of the preceding one making a chain of high explosive. No tamping was necessary. Owing to the explosion being instantaneous with the firing of the charge, the air in the bore supplied the resistance needed, and the effect of the blast was all that was desired. A big charge of ammonal, under these conditions, would blow out an open cut of 20ft wide and 14ft deep, and all that had occupied the space previous to the explosion would have been distributed upward and cross-wise. Where an enemy trench was, there was the open cut —unoccupied.

In early October 1916, while still working on underground defences at Chantecler, the NZ Tunnellers proposed to get near enemy lines and blow a communication trench using a tube of ammonal exploded in a hole by a Wombat Borer. Lieutenant McMeeking and a party of eight men were duly despatched for a course of training in use of the Wombat drill at the 1st Army Mining School. On the 19 October, the Tunnelling Company War Diary records McMeeking and his boring team had returned, having also broken all records.

On 6 November the War Diary reports, ‘Trying Wombat borer in J sector – too hard for great success.’ Shortly afterwards the Tunnellers started work on connecting the underground quarries. Here they would use the Wombat again, this time more successfully.

On 18 February 1917 the War Diary records; ‘An experimental wombat chamber, made and started boring a 6in hole today.’ The next day it was recorded that a wombat hole had been bored 70 feet from the experimental chamber. A couple of days later the wombat hole was charged and blown with good results.

Closer to the opening of the Battle of Arras, the War Diary records further use of the Wombat and its part in the Battle of Arras opening proceedings.




22/3/17 Top of Wombat Chamber ran into bottom of a shell-hole and the latter had to be filled which was rather ticklish job as it was well under Hun wire. This Chamber is required to give room to the use of the Wombat drilling machine

4/4/17 Wombat hole from I.54 is in 150 feet. Drilling has been stopped and preparations for loading in hand

5/4/17 Loading I.54 borehole continued. Loading in I.56 finished; it was loaded with 9lbs Ammonal per foot run continued in sheet iron cylinders. The length charged was 19 ft, the last 2 feet of the hole being tamped. The arrangement of firing was by two electric circuits with three detonators in series in each, placed in the last cylinder. The cover over borehole in I.56 and I.54 galleries was about 4 ft 6 in.

6/4/17 Borehole in I.54 loaded with 9lbs of ammonal per foot run contained in sheet iron cylinders, the hole is loaded for 144 feet the last 6 feet being tamped. The arrangement for firing is by 2 electric circuits, with 6 detonators in series in each; 3 detonators being in the middle of the charge and 3 at the back end.

9 April. The Battle begins with another entry in the Unit Diary.

9/4/17 At zero hour (5.30 am) the Mine in I 70 and boreholes in I 56 and I 54 were blown. The explosions of these Mines was taken as the signal to attack by the Infantry in the Neighbourhood.
At 156 the explosion produced a crater of about 10 ft deep, 30 ft across and 50 ft long…In 45 minutes a trench was opened from the crater to the Hun trench and 200 ft of Gallery Roof about 2 in thick removed, a clear trench way being established from our gallery and the Hun front line…In 154 the explosion produced a crater about 12 feet deep 44 ft across and approx 160 feet long…A communication trench was established from our gallery to the crater and to the Hun Line in 2 hours. These Communication trenches were never used as the attack was so successful that about a 4 and a half mile advance was made that day.

Image; Courtesy Australian War Memorial ID number EO1689. Date made 30 January 1918.

Image caption: Boring a hole with a ‘Wombat’ drill for the ventilation of a dugout at the Headquarters of No. 2 Section, 3rd Australian Tunnelling Company, in the Cite St. Laurent. The “Wombat” boring machine was designed by Captain Stanley Hunter of the Australian Mining Corps, and adopted by the British Army. Shown: Lieutenant J. Robertson (left) and 4368 Sapper C. G. Jolley, at work.


Chinese ANZACs: Chinese-Australians and World War One

If you have an interest in the wider aspects of ANZAC military history, we urge you to pay a visit to this newly opened exhibition.
On now until 19 December 2014.

As the centenary of World War One dawns on Australia, its history and stories are fast slipping from public memory. In the lead up to the centenary of World War One, the Chinese Museum has been researching these untold stories of Chinese-Australian war contributions both at home and abroad.




Our first events this year wouldn’t have been possible without the great support we received from the local community and the local media.

Saturday afternoon – 26 April 2014 – Show and Tell
This event was held in the E.J.T Tippett Library on Federation University Australia’s Lydiard Street South Campus. Sue McPhan was there to look after us on the day which was (incidentally) her day off. Thank you Sue!


The Library proved to be an excellent venue; many people turned up with items of interest, or with a list of names for further research. One of the people assisting those wanting to find out more about their ANZAC family members, was Neil Leckie from the Ballarat Ranger Military Museum. If you haven’t visited this Museum we would highly recommend you do. Neil is extremely knowledgeable and happy to share information by appointment.

Sunday morning – 27 April 2014 – Digging In The Dark
Our venue was the Lawless Room at Jackson’s & Co. on the corner of Lydiard & Mair Streets. Their function manager Laura Kojdo, ensured we had lights, sound, seating and an excellent lunch was delivered on time as well! It was great to have a well organised venue set up for us. Hats off to the staff at Jackson’s & Co.:

Photo below features (L-R) Damien Finlayson, VIPs President Dorothy Wickham, Ross Thomas and Tim Whitford:


Damien Finlayson was our first presenter. This military historian has written the definitive book on WW1 tunnellers, Crumps & Camouflets. Ross Thomas, mining engineer and historian then spoke about the WW1 prisoner of war camp Holzminden. Tim Whitford, formerly Education Outreach Officer at the Melbourne Shrine of Remembrance was the third presenter. He was one of the key people involved in locating the burial site of the missing ANZACs at Fromelles, one of whom was his great uncle. Each spoke passionately and our appreciative audience members were touched by many of their stories.

Sunday afternoon – 27 April 2014 – Beneath Hill 60
After lunch at Jackson’s & Co. we ventured next door to the Regent Cinema for a special presentation of the movie Beneath Hill 60. This session was introduced by its executive producer Ross Thomas. His accompanying PowerPoint presentation provided great insight into events surrounding the making of the movie. This session was made possible through sponsorship offered to us by Stuart Moors, manager of the Regent Cinema complex: special thanks go to Stuart.

Ballarat’s local newspaper The Courier published a list of our weekend events along with several articles on the Mining Mud & Medals Project (MM&M). The Miner also ran a story promoting our ANZAC Weekend events. ABC Radio in Ballarat and Bendigo conducted interviews with Yvon Davis. Di Campbell and Yvon Davis made two visits to the studios of VOICE FM Community Radio to talk about the MM&M Project, which also featured on WIN TV’s evening News.

The excellent photos featured on this page were taken by Lisa Gervasoni: thank you Lisa.

A big thank you also goes out to the members of Victorian Interpretive Projects Inc. (VIPs) for their great team effort. We also need to thank the team from Ballarat Books who were there to make sure plenty of copies of each presenter’s books were available for purchase and autographing.

And last, but far from least, thank you to everyone who came along to each of our informative, illuminating sessions! We hope to see you all again at future MM&M events.















First MM&M Show & Tell Day:

The Mining Mud & Medals first Show en Tell Day was held on Saturday 26 April 2014, open to anyone who is researching their WW1 ancestor. People were able to get information on how to search via internet as well as finding out how to store the often fragile WW1 objects.
Via Victoria Collections a little snippet of the day:



Ballarat School of Mines Honour Roll

Many World War One memorials were made by students and staff of the Ballarat Technical School, a division of the Ballarat School of Mines. One memorial they started, but never completed, was their own. Close to 100 years later the Ballarat School of Mines Honor Book was completed.

Clare Gervasoni talks about this special book, via ABC Open – Object stories:



Mining Mud & Medals events for Sunday 27th of April


Three excellent WW1 military specialists appearing on one morning session 9:15am to 12:30pm at Jackson’s & Co. Ballarat CBD:

Damien Finlayson, military historian and author of the definitive historical reference on Australian Tunnelling Corps

on the Western Front (Crumps & Camouflets).



Tim Whitford, former Education Outreach Officer at Melbourne’s Shrine of Remembrance.

One of the key people involved in uncovering the burial site of missing servicemen at Fromelles, France in 2008-09.



Ross Thomas, mining engineer & exec producer of the Australian WW1 movie ‘Beneath Hill 60′,

will tell the real story of the Real Great  Escape, the first mass escape of WW1 prisoners

who tunnelled out of Holzminden POW Camp in Germany.




Come and hear Executive producer Ross Thomas, discuss the making of his movie ‘Beneath Hill 60′,

then stay and enjoy a special viewing on the ‘big screen’.

Venue: Regent Cinemas, next door to Jackson’s & Co.



Single session tickets $15 conc or $20 adult
Discounted All Day tickets (covering sessions one and two)  $25 conc and $30 adult.


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 246 other followers